May 9, 2017
by CTRF
Comments Off on Status of Seedlings in Greenhouses

Status of Seedlings in Greenhouses

Percent seed germination and uniformity of seedling stands in most greenhouses appear to be quite good. Clipping is underway in tray greenhouses and fungicide application for prevention of Rhizoctonia damping-off has occurred.

Only a few isolated problems have been reported to date. These include injury from fertilizer salts (float trays), excessively high temperatures (ventilation failure in a float tray greenhouse), algae on media surface (float trays) and bacterial soft rot (float trays).

Figure 1. shows damage to seedlings caused by Bacterial Soft Rot in a float tray greenhouse. Leaf debris falling back onto the seedlings from the clipper, as shown in Figure 2., is a good food source for the bacteria.  This is an ideal starting point for the disease to become established and have the potential to infect healthy seedlings.

Figure 1. Seedlings infected with Bacterial Soft Rot.

Figure 2. Leaf debris from clipper that has fallen back on to the seedlings.

There are no control agents registered for control of Bacterial Soft Rot in tobacco greenhouses. Removal of trays with the diseased seedlings from the greenhouse and replacing them with blank trays is the best control in this situation.  Other practices for control include trying to keep leaf debris from the clipper out of the beds, not clipping when the leaves are wet, not over-fertilizing, keeping the foliage of the seedlings as dry as possible, and ventilating the greenhouse adequately to keep the humidity level down in the greenhouse.

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Mailing Address: CTRF, P.O. Box 322, Tillsonburg, ON  N4G 4H5

Telephone: 519-842-8997

Web Address: http://ctrf1.com

April 6, 2017
by CTRF
Comments Off on First Blue Mold Occurrence in U.S. in 2017

First Blue Mold Occurrence in U.S. in 2017

Blue Mold on flue-cured tobacco was recently reported in Georgia, where the disease occurred in two greenhouses in South Georgia in March, 2017.  Reports indicate that the infestations appear to have been controlled and tobacco in the area is being transplanted into the field.  This is the first report of Blue Mold in the tobacco growing areas of the United States.  To date, there have been no reports of Blue Mold in Ontario.  Growers should routinely scout greenhouses for signs of Blue Mold as the season progresses.  Information about identification of Blue Mold and its control can be found in the technical bulletin entitled “Tobacco Pests and Disorders in the Field – Blue Mold” posted in the Plant Protection area of this website and in OMAFRA publications 842 and 843.  If you find Blue Mold, please report it immediately.

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Mailing Address: CTRF, P.O. Box 322, Tillsonburg, ON  N4G 4H5

Telephone: 519-842-8997

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March 31, 2017
by CTRF
Comments Off on Highlights from the Annual Variety Meeting

Highlights from the Annual Variety Meeting

The following are some of the highlights from the annual meeting of the Ontario Recommending Committee for Flue-Cured Tobacco held on February 22, 2017.

Variety Situation

Eight tobacco varieties were grown in farmers’ fields in Ontario in 2016, and for the sixth consecutive year, CTH14 was the most popular variety grown, occupying 59.3% of the acreage.  CT572 was the next most popular variety at 25.3% of the acreage and has been in this same position (second place) since 2002.  The rest of the varieties grown were CT157 (7.7%), CC160 (3.0%), NC297 (2.2%), CTH2 (1.6%), CTH8 (0.7%) and CT652 (0.2%).

Registered Variety Trial

The registered variety trial is conducted annually to provide growers with information about the current performance of the registered varieties. The committee reviewed results from the past three years.  The data set showing the physical, agronomic and chemical characteristics of the registered varieties over these years can be found in the plant breeding section of this website.

Ontario Regional Variety Registration Trial  and Small-Scale Variety Release

New elite varieties in the breeding program are evaluated for at least 2 years at 3 locations in this trial before being considered for registration. Based on overall merit, the committee approved a small-scale release for the conventional variety 13AA27-4 to allow up to 12 producers to grow this variety on a limited scale in 2017.  13AA27-4 was among the varieties that were put on display at CTRF’s Open House in December, 2016.  The average yield of 13AA27-4 across locations was 3,824 kg/ha, which was statistically similar to Delgold (3,656 kg/ha) but superior to CT157 (3,214 kg/ha).  The grade index for 13AA27-4 was 81 compared to 73 for Delgold and 65 for CT157.  13AA27-4 was rated an 80 for the company visual evaluation of useability and was higher than Delgold (75) and CT157 (79).  Other entries found to be promising in the trial were CTH144 (TMV resistant) and CTH128 (Black Root Rot resistant).  13AA27-4 and these two other entries have been kept in the trial and will be evaluated in 2017 along with five other promising varieties that have been advanced into this trial from the strain trials.

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Mailing Address: CTRF, P.O. Box 322, Tillsonburg, ON  N4G 4H5

Telephone: 519-842-8997

Web Address: http://ctrf1.com

 

February 15, 2017
by CTRF
Comments Off on Control of Greenhouse Diseases

Control of Greenhouse Diseases

Several diseases can affect tobacco seedlings in greenhouses and, if growers have not already done so, now would be a good time to control some of these diseases before seeding.  Information on the control of algae, black root rot, and Rhizoctonia and Pythium damping-off can be found in an article entitled “2017 Growing Season Will Begin Shortly – Importance of Steam Sterilizing Styrofoam Trays and Muck Seedbeds” in the Plant Protection section of this website.

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Mailing Address: CTRF, P.O. Box 322, Tillsonburg, ON  N4G 4H5

Telephone: 519-842-8997

Web Address: http://ctrf1.com

January 23, 2017
by CTRF
Comments Off on Diazinon Use Phased-Out

Diazinon Use Phased-Out

The Pest Management Regulatory Agency (PMRA) has phased-out the use of the active ingredient diazinon as of December 31, 2016.  As a result, Diazinon 50 WSP can no longer be used in tobacco greenhouses to control Pavement Ants.  Any leftover product should be disposed of in an environmentally responsible way, such as through the CleanFARMS obsolete pesticide & livestock medication collection program.

Over the past 2 years, the Canadian Tobacco Research Foundation (CTRF) has conducted research trials to find a replacement for Diazinon 50 WSP.  Several products were found to be efficacious in controlling Pavement Ants in tobacco muckbed greenhouses.  Data from this work is currently being considered by the registrants of these products for supporting a submission for minor use registration.

In the interim, there are currently no pest control products registered and recommended for control of Pavement Ants in tobacco muckbed greenhouses.  In past research studies, Pavement Ants were observed to prefer cornmeal to tobacco seed.  Near the walkway, you can place bait stations, which are made up of cornmeal placed in a covered container with holes placed on the sides near the bottom of the container.  This may entice the Pavement Ants to feed on the cornmeal rather than the tobacco seed in the seedbed.

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Mailing Address: CTRF, P.O. Box 322, Tillsonburg, ON  N4G 4H5

Telephone: 519-842-8997

Web Address: http://ctrf1.com

January 18, 2017
by CTRF
Comments Off on Presidio® Fungicide Now Registered for Control of Blue Mold of Tobacco

Presidio® Fungicide Now Registered for Control of Blue Mold of Tobacco

Presidio® Fungicide has been granted registration for control of Blue Mold on field tobacco.  It is a liquid suspension concentrate that contains 39.5% of the active ingredient (a.i.) fluopicolide.  Presidio® Fungicide is the sole component of the chemistry group 43 fungicide that has both systemic and translaminar action and works on contact.  It is effective against several oomycetes including Peronospora tabacina, the pathogen that causes Blue Mold on tobacco.

Presidio® Fungicide has both preventive and curative activity and it works by interrupting the pathogen’s cell structure.  It must be applied on the plant foliage prior to disease onset in tobacco or at first indication that Blue Mold is in the area.  A second foliar application may be made with a minimum treatment interval of 7 days between applications.  The application rate is 292 mL/ha.

For resistant management, Presidio® Fungicide should be applied in a tank mix with a labelled rate of another fungicide registered and recommended for Blue Mold control, but with a different mode of action.  Currently the options are Aliette WDG or Quadris Flowable.  A maximum of two foliar applications of Presidio® Fungicide (584 mL/ha) per season is permitted.  When applying Presidio® Fungicide, use sufficient water to guarantee good leaf coverage.  A minimum of 200 L of water/ha is recommended.

The re-entry interval (REI) after application is 12 hours and the pre-harvest interval (PHI) is 7 days.

The Canadian Tobacco Research Foundation (CTRF) evaluated Presidio® Fungicide in several field experiments and found the fungicide to have no effect on tobacco yield and quality.  The Tobacco Review and Evaluation Committee (TREC) also found the fungicide to be acceptable for use on flue-cured tobacco.

Even though Blue Mold on field tobacco has not occurred in Canada since 2008, it is important that products be available for control in the event the disease reappears.

Always read the label before applying a pest control product.

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Mailing Address: CTRF, P.O. Box 322, Tillsonburg, ON  N4G 4H5

Telephone: 519-842-8997

Web Address: http://ctrf1.com

December 23, 2016
by CTRF
Comments Off on Registered Variety Data Available

Registered Variety Data Available

Agronomic performance data for the registered varieties grown in 2016 can now be viewed in the plant breeding area of the website.

Registered and promising varieties on display at the Open House on December 21, 2016.

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Mailing Address: CTRF, P.O. Box 322, Tillsonburg, ON  N4G 4H5

Telephone: 519-842-8997

Web Address: http://ctrf1.com

 

November 29, 2016
by CTRF
Comments Off on Open House

Open House

CTRF is holding an “Open House” on Wednesday, December 21 between the hours of 8:30 a.m. and 12:00 noon.  Cured leaf samples of registered and promising varieties will be on display.  Handouts on the performance of the registered varieties will be available.  There will also be a plant pathology display in CTRF’s research lab.  Click here for the program and directions.

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Mailing Address: CTRF, P.O. Box 322, Tillsonburg, ON  N4G 4H5

Telephone: 519-842-8997

Web Address: http://ctrf1.com

 

October 28, 2016
by CTRF
Comments Off on Field Research Trials and Open House

Field Research Trials and Open House

With harvesting completed earlier in October, CTRF will now begin to evaluate the tobacco cured from several of the field trials conducted in 2016.

Variety trials being harvested near Delhi, ON on October 5, 2016.

Variety trials being harvested for the final time near Delhi, ON on October 5, 2016.

Similar to last year, a total of 42 promising flue-cured varieties were tested in replicated trials, with some of these varieties being grown at multiple sites.  The main objectives of CTRF’s breeding program are to develop varieties with good quality, high yield and disease resistance.  Several varieties under test have resistance to Black Root Rot, Tobacco Mosaic Virus, and/or Potato Virus Y.  Screening of breeding lines with high tolerance to Root-Lesion Nematodes is also occurring.  CTRF will again be holding an Open House later this year for growers to view cured leaves from the registered varieties and the new varieties that show the most promise for registration.  Agronomic data of these varieties will also be made available at the Open House.

In the plant protection area this year, several field trials were undertaken involving the control of Aphids, Root-Lesion Nematodes, White Mould, Blue Mold, and Pavement Ants (in the greenhouse).  New crop protection agents were evaluated as controls for these insect pests and diseases.  In some cases, the disease was not present in the field in 2016, such as Blue Mold.  Even though the disease did not occur, the effect of a new crop protection agent on leaf yield and quality can still be determined.  Data collected from all of the field trials will be analyzed once the yield and grade assessment of the cured tobacco has been completed.

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Mailing Address: CTRF, P.O. Box 322, Tillsonburg, ON  N4G 4H5

Telephone: 519-842-8997

Web Address: http://ctrf1.com

September 15, 2016
by CTRF
Comments Off on Harvest Update

Harvest Update

An extended period of hot and dry conditions, which slowed the maturity of most crops, appears now to be over. With more seasonal weather conditions anticipated, the rate at which the remainder of the crop matures should improve.  It is expected that most growers will need the rest of September and into October to complete harvest.

No widespread disease or insect problems in the field have been reported to date this harvest season. Also, there have been no reports of Blue Mold in Ontario grown tobacco in 2016.

As a result of the dry season so far, nitrogen availability to the crop has been ample and suckers have been more of an issue this year than most.  In some fields, stalks are crooked from high winds experienced during a storm earlier in the season, which has made it difficult to properly apply contact sucker controls.

A long yellowing period when curing has been quite common on several farms this season. Fortunately, there have not been many complaints about curing diseases, such as bacterial soft rot and pole rot, which can become more severe when the yellowing period is long.

Earlier this season, we observed plants in several fields that were infected with Tobacco Streak Virus (TSV) (see photo below). No significant economic losses occurred in these fields because of the virus.  Sometimes this virus is mistakenly referred to as Tobacco Etch Virus, since some of the symptoms are similar.  TSV has been reported here in Ontario in tobacco since the 1930’s, but has never caused significant losses.  One unique trait of TSV is that the plant will recover from the viral infection.  Usually, 3-6 leaves about mid-plant will show infection from the virus, while leaves at the top and bottom of the plant appear normal.  More detailed information about TSV can be found in the Plant Protection area of this website.

Tobacco Streak Virus

Leaves showing symptoms of Tobacco Streak Virus – white lesions present on leaves and along veins, and browning of lesions on older leaves.

 

 

 

 

 

 

At this time of year, CTRF’s field research trials are also being harvested.  In addition, monitoring of these trials is ongoing.  Below is a photo showing tip leaves being measured in a fungicide evaluation trial near Aylmer, Ontario.

Tip Leaf Measurements

Tip leaf measurements in research trial.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Mailing Address: CTRF, P.O. Box 322, Tillsonburg, ON  N4G 4H5

Telephone: 519-842-8997

Web Address: http://ctrf1.com